36th Division in World War I

Chapter VI:
Glory on the Aisne
Continued

FOOTNOTES

1[175] General Smith, Report of the Operations of the 36th Division with the French Armies, Sept. 26 to Oct. 29, Smith, Special Report of Thirty-Sixth Division, General Hulen, Report of the Operations of the 72nd Brigade, December 15, 1918, Whitworth, Special Report of Tour in Line of Seventy-First Brigade, December 15, 1918, GHQ, G-3 Reports, Memorandum for General Hulen, Services of the Thirty-sixth Division, Historical File, 36th Division, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives; Spence, ‘History of the Thirty-sixth," 162-220, 405-422; Daily Oklahoman, January 7, 1919; Star-Telegram, December 26, 1918, January 19, February 2, 9, 1919.

2Otto gives little attention to the German retreat to the Aisne but includes two maps in his book indicating the "situation" for October 10-11. On them he shows an east-southeast to west-northwest main line of resistance running immediately below Dricourt where the Germans presumably would have offered stiff opposition had the French and Americans taken up the pursuit sooner and/or reached that point by the forenoon of October 11. No opposition was encountered by the allies at that line on October 12. The next main line of resistance was, as indicated in the text, on the north bank of the Aisne where the Germans clearly intended to make a determined stand. Otto, Rattle At Blanc Mont, 180, 187.

3Statements of Major Clark M. Mullican, Major Lloyd E. Hill, First Lieutenant Fred W. Westcourt, First Lieutenant Lewis F. Boyle, Captain Otto C. Schultz, 144th Infantry, Statement of Lieutenant Colonel Holman Taylor, 143rd Infantry, Memorandum for General Hulen, Statement of Hawley, Services of the Thirty-sixth Division, Bloor, Operations of the 142nd Infantry, Historical File, Smith, Report of the Operations of the 36th Division with the French Armies, Sept. 26 to Oct. 29, Smith, Special Report of Thirty-Sixth Division, Hulen, Report of the Operations of the 72nd Brigade, December 15, 1918, Whitworth, Special Report of Tour in Line of Seventy-First Brigade, December 15, 1918, GHQ, G-3 Reports, GHQ, War Diaries, 36th Division, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives; "Log of the 72nd Infantry Brigade, 36th Division, American Expeditionary Force in France, 1918," typescript, John A. Hulen Papers, 1908-1966, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock; World War I Battle Messages, 1918, 36th Division, 1914-1962, Texas National Guard Records, 1900-1964, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 232-278, 423-431; Caption with photo of St. Vaubourg, List of 36th photos, Photographic Division, Signal Corps, National Archives; Jary (ed.), Camp Bowie, 126-127; Daily Oklahoman, April 6, 1919; Star-Telegram, November 17, 1918, January 19, February 2, March 9, 1919. The 71st had regrouped in quick time after the pass-through by the 72nd early on October 11 and had spent much of the day on the St. Etienne battleground "gathering articles of salvage" and burying the dead. After the first "warm food" and good night’s rest in sometime, the 71st Brigade, together with the 131st Machine Gun Battalion, on October 12, advanced through the countryside past "the blackened ruins of Machault" to the pine thickets along the Retourne Creek below Dricourt where they camped for the night. The next morning the troops took advantage of "solidified alcohol" called ‘canned heat" found in German dugouts to heat water and shave for the first time in a week. After [176] a Sunday march via Vaux-Champagne, the 71st, once again, on the night of October 13-14, found itself on the firing line. Daily Oklahoman, April 6, 1919; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 221, 247, 256, 282.

4Log of the 72nd Infantry Brigade, 36th Division, American Expeditionary Force in France, 1918," Hulen Papers, 1908-1966, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University; World War I Battle Messages, 1918, 36th Division, 1914-1962, Texas National Guard Records, 1900-1964, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University; Smith, Report of the Operations of the 36th Division with the French Armies, Sept. 26 to Oct. 29, Smith, Special Report of the Thirty-Sixth Division, Hulen, Report of the Operations of the 72nd Brigade, December 15, 1918, GHQ, G-3 Reports, Memorandum for General Hulen, Services of the Thirty-sixth Division, Medical History of the 142nd Infantry, Historical File, Daily Situation Reports and other miscellaneous documents, GHQ, G-3 Reports, Journal of Operations, GHQ, War Diaries, 36th Division, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 278-292, 506; Letter of John A. White, October 21, 1918, in possession of author; Daily Oklahoman, November 24, 29, December 1, 15, 1918, April 6, 1919; Star-Telegram, December 15, 1918; Statesman, November 29, 30, December 4, 1918.

5Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 147, 197-199, 274-275, 281, 293-294, 532576; Statements of Hawley, Schultz, and Mullican, Historical File, 36th Division, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives.

6Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 506; Daily Oklahoman, October 20, 1918; Star-Telegram, October 19, 20, November 3, 26, 1918; Statesman, October 19, 1918; New York limes, October 20, 1918.

7Coffman, War To End All Wars, 284; Lieutenant Colonel X. H. Price, Study of Operations of the 36th U.S. Division with the IV French Army in Champagne (includes maps), GHQ, G-3 Reports, General Correspondence, 36th Division, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives; Stallings, Doughboys, 287-289; Pershing, My Experiences in the World War, II, 325-327. Stallings, the 2nd Division marine veteran who wrote the book about the AEF as cited above, regarded the efforts of the 36th from October 8-13 as sensational. He asserts with characteristic enthusiasm and some exaggeration that the 36th company commanders "had to restrain men who wished to swim the river [Aisne] and carry the Lone Star flag into Hindenburg’s last line." On the other hand, Lieutenant Colonel Price, position undetermined, in his unpublished contemporary study also cited above, was not impressed with the 36th’s performance. The attacks of the 36th "were generally unsuccessful" and the Germans "were retiring." Interestingly enough, an unsigned handwritten note inscribed on his general assessment states that his conclusions "have never been accepted by higher authority."

8Smith, Report of the Operation of the 36th Division with the French Armies, Sept. 26 to Oct. 29, Smith, Special Report of Thirty-Sixth Division, Whitworth, Special Report of Tour in Line of Seventy-First Brigade, December 15, 1918, Whitworth, Operations Report of Engagement 27th October 1918, November 7, 1918, GHQ, G-3 Reports, Maps in Lieutenant Colonel X. H. Price, Study of Operations of the 36th U.S. Division with IV French Army in Champagne, GHQ, G-3 Reports, General Correspondence, Sketch maps of the 1oop prepared by intelligence section, 142nd Infantry, for Whitworth, Historical File, 36th Division, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives; "Log of the 72nd Infantry Brigade, 36th Division, American Expeditionary Force in France, 1918," Hulen Papers, [177] 1908-1966, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 302-308, 432-438; Stallings, Doughboys, 288; Map entitled "American Battle Operations in the Champagne Region," American Battle Monuments Commission, American Armies and Battlefields in Europe: A History, Guide, and Reference Book.

9Pershing, My Experiences in the World War, II, 303, 320-341; Palmer, Pershing, 317-319, 333-336; Stallings, Doughboys, 323-340.

10Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 307-3 12, 6 15-625; Smith, Report of the Operations of the 36th Division with the French Armies, Sept. 26to Oct. 29, GHQ, G-3 Reports, 36th Division, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives.

11[U.S. War Department General Staff], Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty(Me Divisions of the German Army, 75, 638; Whitworth, Operations Report of Engagement 27th October 1918, November 7, 1918, GHQ, G-3 Reports, 36th Division, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives.

12Report of Bloor to Smith, attention of Captain Spence, January 23, 1919, in First Lieutenant John R. Eddy, Report on the American Indian Soldier, Historical Section, GHQ, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives; Star-Telegram, January 19, June 11, 1919; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 287-288, 300-301; White, "Indian Soldiers of the 36th Division," Military History of Texas and the Southwest, XV, 17-18.

13Whitworth, Operations Report of Engagement 27th October 1918, November 7, 1918, Whitworth, Special Report of Tour in Line of Seventy-First Brigade, December 15, 1918, Smith, Report of the Operations of the 36th Division with the French Armies, Sept. 26 to Oct. 29, Smith, Special Report of Thirty-Sixth Division, Hulen, Report of the Operations of the 72nd Brigade, December 15 1918, GHQ, G-3 Reports, Bloor, Operations of the 142nd Infantry, Services of the Thirty-sixth Division, Statement of Hawley, Memorandum for General Hulen, Historical File, Statements of Private Carl Schlossen and others, Personnel War Experiences, Supplemental File, 36th Division, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 3 12-329, 439-458; Daily Oklahoman, December 2, 1918, April 6, 13, 1919; Star-Telegram, February 9, 1919; Burges to Caldwell, November 3, 1918, Burges Papers, Archives, University of Texas; "Log of the 72nd Infantry Brigade, 36th Division, American Expeditionary Force in France, 1918," Hulen Papers, 1908-1966, and "As It Was Ordered, So It Was Accomplished," 36th Division, 1914-1962, Texas National Guard Records, 1900-1964, in Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University; Hart, Company K, 98-137; Coffman, War To End all Wars, 345; Chastaine, Story of the 36th, 211-238. The "As It Was Ordered, So It Was Accomplished" document, cited above, is actually a compilation of documents relating to the Forest Farm operation compiled by Captain Loftus.

14Report of the Secretary of War to the President, 1926, 201; Smith, Special Report of Thirty-Sixth Division, Smith, Report of the Operations of the 36th Division with the French Armies, Sept. 26to Oct. 29, GHQ, G-3 Reports, Services of the Thirty-sixth Division, Historical File, 36th Division, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 364-366, 489-504; Arrow Head, May 2, 1919; Star-Telegram, May 18, 1919; Frothingham, American Reinforcement in the World War, 152. While total casualties were nearly the same, the break-down of casualties by unit in the report of the Secretary of War in 1926 differed somewhat with those given in Spence’s official history.

15[178] Star-Telegram, February 10, 1919.

16 Daily Oklahoman, December 2, 1918, April 13, 1919; Star-Telegram, January 12, 1919; Chastaine, Story of the 36th, 239-246; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 330-334, 459-463; Hart, Company K, 138; Frothingham, American Reinforcement in the World War, 152-153.

17Barnes, 142nd Infantry, 44; Statesman, November 3, 28, 1918; Daily Oklahoman, July 1, 1917, February 9, 1919; Star-Telegram, November 10, 15, 25, 1918.

18Pershing, My Experiences in the World War, II, 350-388; vandiver, Life and Times of John J. Pershing, II, 978-985; Coffman, War To End AU Wars, 341-343, 348-356.

19Daily Oklahoman, December 15, 1918; Star-Telegram, November 26, 1918.

20Stallings, Doughboys, 288-289.

21Vandiver, Life and limes of John J. Pershing, II, 1010-1011; Pershing, My Experiences in the World War, II, 386-387; Daily Oklahoman, April 13, 1919. According to a story in the Hulen Papers, evidently told years later and attributed to Lieutenant Armstrong, General Hulen obtained permission from Smith shortly before the Armistice to go to Paris and talk to Colonel E. M. House, President Wilson’s personal advisor, on the subject of the 36th’s disposition following the war. Hulen’s "old Texas friend" confirmed the rumor that had prompted Hulen’s visit, that the 36th was "to go to" the Army of Occupation. Hulen argued that "it was unfair" to send Texas and Oklahoma National Guard troops to Germany because they had served on the Mexican border for "about two years" before America’s entry into World War I. House saw to it that the "orders" were changed. The 36th, House told Hulen, "will go home" and the 90th Division "will go to Germany."

One wonders about the truth of this story. House was in Paris and Hulen could have made the trip to see him in a short time. It is a fact, however, that the 36th was at the time down to serve with the new Second Army in an offensive that was scratched as the result of the Armistice. And this writer has seen no evidence of orders before November 11 for the 36th to serve with the Third in Germany after the Armistice.

The clear implication of Armstrong’s account is that Hulen was responsible for the 36th’s going home immediately while the 90th stayed on. Actually, both divisions remained in Europe, the 36th in France and the 90th in Germany, and came home at about the same time. Suffice it to say that the plan adopted for bringing the troops home did not, as will be seen below, place non-Regular Army divisions sent to Germany at any great disadvantage. Document entitled "The Power of One Man, The Lives of 60,000 Men Changed," in Hulen Papers, 1908-1966, Literary Productions, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University; Skaggs, "Lieutenant General John A. Hulen," Texas Military History, VIII, 140.

22Statesman, October 19, 1918, March 20, 1919; Daily Oklahoman, March 16, April 13, 1919; Star-Telegram, February 9, 23, 1919; Arrow Head, February 27, March 21, April 18, 25, 1919; Jary (ed.), Camp Bowie, 60; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 345; Chastaine, Story of the 36th, 27 1-272; American Battle Monuments Commission, American Armies and Battlefields in Europe; A History, Guide, and Reference Book, 516. The Texas and Oklahoma press was evidently unaware of the T-arrowhead design for some time after its adoption. [179] Neither the Star-Telegram nor the Daily Oklahoman ever seemed cognizant of either the "Arrow Head" or the "Lone Star" sobriquet. The Star-Telegram made frequent use of the "Panther" designation while the Daily Oklahoman rarely used it. Interestingly, the latter paper printed the new design on March 16, 1919, under the caption, "‘Panther,’ National Guard of Texas and Oklahoma." Chastaine discussed the design in a piece printed April 13, 1919. The "Arrow Head" spelling is that used by the division newspaper, the Arrow Head, whose establishment will be discussed below in the text.

Select
redline.gif (912 bytes)
navbar

Panthers to Arrowheads: The 36th (Texas-Oklahoma) Division In World War I
by Lonnie J. White
Copyright 1984 1998 by Military History Associates, Inc.
All Rights Reserved - Reprinted by Permission
This page is sponsored and maintained by
TMFM