1 Ernie Pyle, Here Is Your War (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1943), 304.

2 David Nichols, editor, Ernie's War: The Best of World War II Dispatches (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986), xiii. Pyle had 13 million readers by 1945.

3 Frederick C. Painton, "The Hoosier Letter Writer," Saturday Evening Post October 2, 1943, 17. Painton said Pyle received 5,000 letters a year, and many letters said the writer prayed for Pyle's survival.

4 Pyle, Here is Your War, 247.

5 Lee G. Miller, The Story of Ernie Pyle (New York: The Viking Press, 1950), 277.

6 Ibid, 297

7 Nichols, Ernie's War, 195. This version differs slightly from the version of the column that appeared in American papers. There were technical difficulties in transmitting Pyle's column to the United States. The Ernie's War version is Pyle's original.

8 Miller, The Story of Ernie Pyle, 297.

9 Lee G. Miller to Ernie Pyle, Letter No. 10, Archives, Ernie Pyle State Historic Site, Dana, Indiana.

10 Ibid

11 Miller, The Story of Ernie Pyle, 305.

12 R. Lee Bowdoin, "To Ernie Pyle," Time, February 7, 1944, 6.

13 Miller to Pyle, Letter No. 10. In his letters to Miller, Pyle said he was pleased by the response to his column and was a bit embarrassed by the attention. He told Miller in a letter, dated January 30, 1944, and available in the Pyle Archives in Dana, that his column on Captain Waskow "is the only good one I've written. Somehow can't seem to get my mind clear and settled on what I'm doing."

14 Ernie Pyle, Brave Men (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1944).

15 Lincoln Barnett, "Ernie Pyle," Life, April 2, 1945, 96.

16 In addition, the Waskow column was reprinted by several major newspapers in the weeks before and after the fiftieth anniversary of its initial publication. A Lexis-Nexis data base search revealed these reprints: January 1, 1994, Atlanta Constitution, January 23, 1994, San Diego Tribune, and June 1, 1994, Arizona Republic.

17 Henry T. Waskow, last will and testament, reprinted in Fred L. Walker, From Texas to Rome: A General's Journal (Dallas, Texas: Taylor Publishing Company, 1969), 291.

18 Riley Mack Tidwell interview, January 18, 1995. Transcript in possession of the author.

19 Sentimental Journey: The 36th Infantry Division Returns to Italy, videotape produced by the Texas National Guard, Camp Mabry, Austin, Texas, September 1988.

20 Marvin Splawn interview, January 10, 1995. Transcript in possession of the author.

21 Michael L. Lanning, "Goodbye to Captain Waskow," VFW Magazine, May 1981, 18.

22 Ira A. Glazier and P. William Filby, editors, Germans to America: Lists of Passengers Arriving at U.S. Ports, indexes in Volumes 1-40, (Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1991).

23 Ibid

24 Glazier and Filby, editors, Germans to America, Volume 18, June 1866-December 1866, 364.

25 "Maritime News," The New York Times, November 20, 1866.

26 Mary Lee (Waskow) Cox interview, December 21, 1994. Transcript in possession of the author.

27 Ibid

28 Ibid

29 Ibid

30 Jimmie Ferguson, "Heroic Capt. Waskow Still Remembered," Killeen Daily Herald, January 10, 1994.

31 Mike Kingston, Sam Attlesey and Mary G. Crawford, The Texas Almanac's Political History of Texas (Austin, Texas: Eakin Press, 1992), 84, 289.

32 Cox interview.

33 Ibid

34 David E. Hamilton, From New Day to New Deal: American Farm Policy From Hoover to Roosevelt (Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1991), 67.

35 William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), 72.

36 Waskow, last will and testament.

37 Bob Tutt, "Column by Ernie Pyle Honored Capt. Henry T. Waskow, The Houston Chronicle, February 6, 1994.

38 Cox interview.

39 Ibid

40 Tutt, "Column by Ernie Pyle."

41 Cox interview.

42 Ibid

43 Ibid

44 Ibid Mary Lee Cox recalled the name "Snort" in response to a question about Henry's nicknames, but she said she could not remember its origin. About a half-hour later, she volunteered the story about Henry's swallowing the corn liquor by mistake. It seems likely that this episode either gave rise to the nickname or cemented it.

45 Ibid

46 Jimmie Ferguson, "Heroic Capt. Waskow.

47 Blackie Sherrod, "Biggest Hero in Our Little Town, Dallas Times Herald, November 4, 1984.

48 Cox interview.

49 Tutt, "Column by Ernie Pyle."

50 Ibid

51 Waskow, last will and testament.

52 Cox interview.

53 Freddie Lee (Duncan) Simmons interview, January 28, 1995. Transcript in possession of the author.

54 Cox interview.

55 Simmons interview.

56 Ibid

57 Ibid

58 Ibid

59 Arden Siler interview, February 7, 1995. Transcript in possession of the author.

60 Ibid

61 Donald E. Everett, Trinity University: A Record of One Hundred Years (San Antonio, Texas: Trinity University Press, 1968), 111.

62 Ibid, 106, 111. A few years after Waskow graduated, Trinity University moved to San Antonio, where its prosperity returned and it continues to thrive.

63 Charles T. Bitters, Class of 1939, interview, February 12, 1995. Transcript in possession of the author.

64 The Mirage, Trinity University, 1939. Quoted in Bitters interview, ibid

65 Bitters interview.

66 Elizabeth (Sewell) Watson interview, February 12, 1995. Transcript in possession of the author.

67 The Mirage, Trinity University, 1939. Quoted in Bitters interview.

68 Bitters interview.

69 Ibid

70 Trinity University Seventieth Commencement program, in possession of the author.

71 Cox interview.

72 Roy D. Goad interview, December 21, 1995. Transcript in possession of the author.

73 Cox interview.

74 Doris Kearns Goodwin, No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt, The Home Front in World War II (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), 139, 141, 149.

75 Harriet Graves, "Camp Bowie Forever Changed Brownwood, " undated Brownwood Bulletin article appearing in The Fighting 36th Historical Quarterly, published by the 36th Division Association, Fall 1991, 6-7.

76 Tidwell interview, January 18, 1995.

77 Julian Philips interview, December 14, 1994. Untranscribed notes in possession of the author.

78 Tidwell interview.

79 Goad interview.

80 Tidwell interview.

81 Ibid

82 Ibid

83 Ibid

84 Jack L. Scott, "An Engineer Combat Platoon," The Fighting 36th Historical Quarterly, Summer 1987, 40.

85 Walker, From Texas to Rome, 108.

86 Ibid Tidwell met Parton in Bizerte on the night that he and the rest of the 143rd Regiment were due to ship out for the invasion of mainland Italy. The docks were two miles from town, and Tidwell had been granted four hours of free time before he had to report to his ship. His plan was to walk into town with three other soldiers and find some excitement. While they were walking into town, they were passed by a long convertible decorated with flags. Tidwell and one of the other soldiers recognized Patton and snapped a salute. The other two soldiers did not. Tidwell said Patton stopped the car, got out and ordered the men who had failed to salute to stand on one side of the road, opposite the two who had saluted. Patton ordered the two who had violated military etiquette to salute the other two a total of one hundred times, and by the time the order had been carried out the men had lost their chance to relax in Bizerte. They returned to their ship, bitter at Patton and his love of protocol. ''Never did make it to town. Always did blame that on Patton," Tidwell said.

87 Walker, From Texas to Rome, 137

88 Tidwell interview.

89 Cox interview.

90 Marvin Splawn interview.

91 Ibid

92 Cox interview. Mary Lee (Waskow) Cox said she corresponded with Agnes during and after World War II, but has lost contact with her. Cox believes her brother would have married Agnes if he had survived the war. The two women met once, in 1967, when Agnes and her husband traveled to Texas. Cox said Agnes joined the WAVES after Henry Waskow's death.

93 Walker, From Texas to Rome, 177-183.

94 Tidwell interview.

95 Ibid

96 Walker, From Texas to Rome, 188; Tidwell interview.

97 Walker, From Texas to Rome, 189.

98 Ibid

99 Walker, From Texas to Rome, 197-199.

100 Pyle, Here Is Your War, 35.

101 Cox interview.

102 Tidwell interview.

103 Riley Tidwell interview.

104 Ibid

105 Chester G. Starr, From Salerno to the Alps: A History of the Fifth Army, 1943-1945 (Washington, D.C.: Infantry Journal Press, 1948), 5.

106 Goad interview.

107 Tidwell interview.

108 Walker, From Texas to Rome, 235.

109 Cox interview.

110 Tidwell interview.

111 Tidwell, Cox interviews. Cox said August Waskow was shipped to the Army's reconstructive surgery center at Atlantic City, New Jersey. Doctors sliced into the stitches above his eye and were amazed after examining him that he had survived the trip home. Dirt, pebbles and bits of leaves had been in the wound when it was sewn shut; blood poisoning should have been the result.

112 143rd Infantry After Action Reports, 1943-1945, Operation Avalanche, 20.

113 Richard M. Burrage, "See Naples and Die," unpublished manuscript in possession of the author, 1988, 21.

114 143rd Infantry After Action Reports (AAR), Operation Avalanche, 20.

115 Ibid, 22; Burrage, "See Naples and Die," 25.

116 143rd Infantry AAR, 21.

117 Ibid

118 Anthony Kellett, "The Soldier in Battle: Motivational and Behavioral Aspects of the Combat Experience," in Betty Glad, editor, Psychological Dimensions of War (Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, 1990), 1-25.

119 Studs Terkel, "The Good War": An Oral History of World War War Two (New York: Pantheon Books, 1984), 361.

120 Life, October 18, 1943, 33.

121 Burrage, "See Naples and Die," 32.

122 Tidwell interview.

123 Ibid

124 They were without Company A, which was assigned that morning to Britain's Royal Scott Greys.

125 143rd Regiment AAR, Operation Avalanche, 23-24.

126 Walker, From Texas to Rome, 267.

127 143rd Regiment AAR, Operation Avalanche, 24.

128 Ibid, 25.

129 Ibid

130 Starr, From Salerno to the Alps, 37, 39.

131 Pyle, Brave Men, 111.

132 Richard A. Huff, editor, The Fighting 36th: A Pictorial History: The Texas Division in Combat (Nashville, Tennessee: The Battery Press, 1979.)

133 Walker, From Texas to Rome, 278.

134 143rd Regiment AAR, Operations in Italy, 29.

135 Gordon Rose, personal letter to the author.

136 Pyle, Brave Men, 143-144.

137 Ibid, 148.

138 The Fighting 36th Historical Quarterly, Winter 1991, 43.

139 Walker, From Texas to Rome, 279.

140 Tidwell interview.

141 Ibid

142 Walker, From Texas to Rome, 283.

143 Lawrence Grobel, The Hustons (New York: Avon Books, 1989), 250. Mauldin called the film that Huston made, The Battle of San Pietro, "the best documentary easily that anybody ever did on the war."

144 143rd Regiment AAR, Operations in Italy, 34.

145 Ibid, 35.

146 Ibid

147 Huff, The Fighting 36th.

148 Ibid

149 143rd AAR, Operations in Italy, 37.

150 Ibid, 38.

151 Tidwell interview.

152 Splawn interview.

153 Tidwell interview.

154 Ibid

155 Miller, The Story of Ernie Pyle, 294-295.

156 William E. Jary, "Never Forget the Day I Saw Ernie," The Fighting 36th Quarterly, Winter 1984, 18.

157 Tidwell interview.

158 Ibid

159 143rd Regiment AAR, Operations in Italy, 44.

160 Tidwell interview.

161 Ibid

162 Miller, The Story of Ernie Pyle, 301.

163 Cox interview.

164 Ibid

165 W. R. H., "The Home Towner," Temple Telegram, January 14, 1944.

166 Cox interview.

167 Cox interview.

168 Waskow is buried in Nettuno Cemetery 'in Italy.

169 W. R. H., "The Home Towner," Temple Telegram, February 23, 1944.

170 "House Committee Tours Italian Line," The New York Times, December 18, 1944.

171 Richard W. Steele, "News of the 'Good War:' World War II News Management," Journalism Quarterly, Winter 1985, 712.

172 James Agee, "A Great Film," The Nation, September 15, 1945, 265.

173 Ibid

174 "Movie of the Week: Ernie Pyle's 'Story of G.I. Joe,'" Life, July 9, 1945, 64-65.

175 Quoted in George H. Roeder Jr., The Censored War, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993), 10.

176 Ibid, 14.

177 Jonathan Marwil, "History in the Taking," Chicago Tribune Sunday Magazine, December 1, 1991, 16.

178 Frederick S. Voss, Reporting the War: The Journalistic Coverage of World War II (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994), 20.

179 Philip Knightley, The First Casualty (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975), 276.

180 Ibid, 296

181 Steele, Journalism Quarterly,

182 Ibid 713.

183 Voss, Reporting the War, 26.

184 Knightley, The First Casualty, 28 1.

185 Gary C. Woodward, "The Rules of the Game: Military and the Press in the Persian Gulf War" in Robert E. Denton Jr., editor, The Media and the Persian Gulf War (Connecticut: Praeger, 1993), 4.

186 Milton Bracker, "Allies Continue Drive in Italy; Bombers Hit Bulgarian Capital; Roosevelt Pays Visit to Malta, " The New York Times, December 11, 1943.

187 Hanson Baldwin, "Slowness of Advance Held Deliberate as Allies Shift Main Strength to Britain," The New York Times, December 14, 1943, and "Capture of Rome This Year Doubted," The New York Times, December 15, 1943.

188 "Roosevelt, on Visit to Sicily, Decorates Clark for Valor," The New York Times, December 14, 1943.

189 See, for example, "Hails U.S. Feat in Taking Italy Peak" and "Nazis Fight Savagely Against American Drive" on December 10; "Reborn Italian Army Hits Nazis" on December 11; "Allies Trudging Ahead in Italy," "Arnold Predicts Feeble Resistance" and "Italian Troops Executed" on December 12; "Allies Foil Italy in Counterattacks" and "Italian Forced Labor Builds Complex Defenses" on December 13; "Etiquette on Italian Front: Don't Shoot Unless Practical" on December 14 and "San Pietro Turns to 'Death Valley'" on December 20, 1944, Cleveland Plain Dealer

190 Don Whitehead, "San Pietro Turns to 'Death Valley,'" Cleveland Plain Dealer December 20.

191 Ibid

192 The man was Sergeant John D. Wadkins of Coolidge, Arizona. He was killed by a German bomb fragment while firing the guns in the upper turret of a bomber. See Pyle, Here Is Your War, 100-101.

193 Pyle, Brave Men, 50.

194 Simmons interview.

195 Henry Allen, "The Power of Myths," The Washington Post, April 24, 1994.

196 Nichols, Ernie’s War, 419.

197 Goad interview.

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