36th Division in World War I


[229] The footnotes have, as a general rule, been collected at the end of fairly lengthy segments throughout the chapters. To have done otherwise would have been to clutter the documentation in many places with numerous consecutive notes containing nearly the same multitudinous listings of sources. Suffice it to say that the majority of paragraphs in a particular segment are generally based on all, or practically all of the sources cited.

In this connection, it may be appropriate to mention that the primary materials frequently provided conflicting data, usually of a minor nature, on the same subjects. In most instances, I have been able to resolve the differences; in others, however, I have used what appeared to be the best information. I have mentioned several disagreements in the footnotes, but to have noticed them all would have consumed more space than most of them were worth. At any rate, readers with access to a single source on a matter should, before they conclude that I have made a mistake, take into consideration that I may have, with good reason, accepted the date, spelling, figure, statement, or whatever given in another account.

Since the footnotes have been gathered largely in segments, it has not been thought necessary to include a bibliography. Readers wishing to examine a particular source will find full bibliographical data supplied the first time it is cited. It may, however, be of some interest to notice a number of the basic collections and sources used in the preparation of the manuscript.

Of the several newspapers cited, the most important have been the Austin Statesman; the Fort Worth Star-Telegram; the Oklahoma City Daily Oklahoman; and the divisional paper published in France after the Armistice, the Arrow Head. The local papers printed letters and statements of the 36th membership especially during the period the division was abroad. These items were extremely valuable since few personal papers of 36th veterans have been collected by Texas and Oklahoma libraries.

The Daily Oklahoman contained the articles of Captain Ben H. Chastaine as discussed in the text and the Statesman yielded useful data related to the Texas National Guard in 1917. The Star-Telegram [230] did an excellent job of reporting the building of Camp Bowie and the training and social activities of the 36th while it was stationed there in 1917-1918. Few moves were made and few words of importance were uttered at Camp Bowie that Star-Telegram reporters did not witness or hear and record usually under by-lines. The Arrow Head was short-lived, but I found it indispensable in recounting the activities of the 36th in the 16th (Tonnerre) Training Area.

The voluminous divisional records in the National Archives, Washington, D. C., were exceedingly valuable particularly for the 36th’s overseas activities. Of greatest value to this study were the orders, memorandums, correspondence, lists, reports, statements, and other materials in the Historical File; the Supplemental File, Personnel War Experiences; the Headquarters, Decimal File; and the General Headquarters, G-3 Reports, all found in Records Group 120, Records of the American Expeditionary Forces. Besides the divisional records, I used the General Headquarters, Inspector General Correspondence, and the General Headquarters, Historical Section, Study of American Indians, also in Records Group 120, American Expeditionary Forces, and the Project Files, 1917-1925, 36th Division, in Records Group 407, Records of the Adjutant General’s office. In those notes where I have cited items from more than one file, each document is specified immediately preceding the designation of the file in which it was located.

Two notable sources in the Historical File are a set of the Arrow Head and a copy of the unpublished official work, "The History of the Thirty-sixth Division, U.S.A., 1917-1919" (typescript, 1919), by Captain Alexander W. Spence. This account together with Captain Chastaine’s book, Story of the 36th: The Experiences of the 36th Division in the World War (Oklahoma City, 1920), are discussed in Chapter Eight. A copy of Spence’s history is also in the Texas National Guard Records, 1900-1964, in the Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock. Besides the Guard records, I examined the John A. Hulen Papers, 1908-1966, especially the "Log of the 72nd Infantry Brigade, 36th Division, American Expeditionary Force in France 1918" (typescript), and the Hulen Papers, 36th Division Association (microfilm), also in the Southwest Collection.

[231] Another collection of more than average value was that of Frank J. Tillman in the Archives, Texas State Library, Austin. Tillman was an artillery officer who worked for the Star-Telegram after the war. Among the items collected by Tillman were the manuscript diary of the 111th Ammunition Train and copies of E. C. Toy and T. F. Poynor, Brief History of the 111th Field Signal Battalion (n.p., n.d.); the Trail Log, May 1, 1919, containing the history of the 131st Field Artillery Regiment; and Ernst Otto, The Battle At Blanc Mont, translated from the German by Martin Lichtenberg (Annapolis, 1930). The Trail Log history was reproduced in part in William E. Jary, Jr. (ed. and art dir.), Camp Bowie, Fort Worth, 1917-1918 (Fort Worth, 1975), which contains considerable primary information related to the 36th at Camp Bowie and abroad.

Numerous books, some of them original sources, in addition to those noted above were important to this study however much in different ways. The general accounts were especially helpful in placing the history of the 36th in broad perspective. Useful information was also gleaned from several articles, including my own, mainly in the Military History of Texas and the Southwest (formerly Texas Military History) and the Chronicles of Oklahoma.

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Panthers to Arrowheads: The 36th (Texas-Oklahoma) Division In World War I
by Lonnie J. White
Copyright 1984 1998 by Military History Associates, Inc.
All Rights Reserved - Reprinted by Permission
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