36th Division in World War I

 

FOOTNOTES
[20]

1. Edward M. Coffman, The War To End All Wars: The America Military Experience ln World War I (New York, 1968), 3-29; Clarence C. Clendenen, Blood on the Border: The United States Army and the Mexican Irregulars (London, 1969), 285-298; Russell F. Weigley, History of the United States Army (New York, 1967), 313-354.

2. Biennial Report of the Adjutant General of Texas From January 1, 1915, to December 31, 1916 (Austin, 1917), 3-7; Muster Roll, Texas National Guard, 1916, John A. Hulen Papers, 36th Division Association, microfilm, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock; Statesman (Austin, Texas), January 2, 7, 15, 17, 21, 22, 1917; Frank E. Vandiver, Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing (2 vols., College Station, Texas, 1977), 11, 671-691; Clendenen, Blood on the Border, 291-295; Helen Roberts Coggeshall, "The Happy Invasion of 1916," Password, IV (Fall, 1961), 107-114.

[21]

3. Donald E. Houston, "The Oklahoma National Guard on the Mexican Border, 1916," Chronicles of Oklahoma, Lill (Winter, 1975-1976), 447-462; Fort Worth Star- Telegram (Texas), September 14, 1917; Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City), April 10, September 16, 1917.

4. Statesman, February 19, March 7,17, 24, 1917; Houston, "Oklahoma National Guard on the Mexican Border, 1916," Chronicles of Oklahoma, LIII, 459-462.

5. Statesman, March 27, 28, April 1, 6, 1917; Daily Oklahoman, March 3 1, April 1, 2, 3, 5, 1917, June 8, 1919; Clendenen, Blood on the Border, 297; Historical and Pictorial Review: National Guard of the State of Texas (Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1940), 37. Excluded from the federalization of the Texas Guard on April 1, 1917, were General Hulen and his staff, the field hospital, the field artillery, and the engineers.

6. Jim Dan Hill, The Minute Man in Peace and War: A History of the National Guard (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1964), 242, 257, 263-272, 276-277; Statesman, April 15, May 11, 18, 20, August 1, 1917; Star-Telegram, August 4, 1917.

7. Since both the Texas and Oklahoma National Guards were among those state Guards ordered back into federal service on April 1, before the declaration of war, it may appear that their subsequent federalization was superfluous. As a matter of fact, the August 5 federalization was necessary to encompass the two Guards as enlarged and expanded and those units that were not federalized on April 1. (See note 5) Several of the new Guard units were inspected by Regular Army officers on July 27 to ascertain their acceptability. Special Orders, June-August, 1917, Texas National Guard, Hulen Papers, 36th Division Association.

8. Biennial Report of the Adjutant General of Texas from January 1, 1917, to December 31, 1918 (Austin, 1919), 4-27; Statesman, May 18, 20, August 1, 1917; Star-Telegram, May 18, June 4, 27, August 4, 1917; Alexander White Spence, "The History of the Thirty-sixth Division, U.S.A., 1917-1919" (Typescript, 1919), 1-2, Historical File, 36th Division, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives. Spence states that Hutchings commanded the 1st Texas Infantry Brigade and Hulen the 2nd, but the Biennial Report of the Adjutant General of Texas, cited above, and the Statesman, August 1, 1917, give Hulen as commander of the 1st and Hutchings the 2nd.

9. Report of Hulen to Governor, August 5, 1917, Hulen Papers, 36th Division Association; Statesman, June 8, 17, 25, 26, 30, July 3, 16, 1917; Star- Telegram, May 25, 28, June 4, 26, July 26, August 4, September 7, November 18, 1917; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 2-3.

10. Daily Oklahoman, April 9, 12, 15, 29, 30, May 6, 11, 13, 20, 23, 24, 27, 29, 30, June 8, 10, 16, 18, 19, 24, August 7, 12, September 9, 1917; Statesman, May 2, 10, 1917; Star-Telegram, August 4, 19, 29, 1917; Jennings C. Wise, The Red Man in the New World Drama: A Politico-Legal Study with a Pageantry of American Indian History, edited, revised, and with an introduction by Vine Deloria, Jr, (New York, 1971), 319-320; M. H. Carr to Corporal E. C. Barrington, October 7, 1917, Richard Fenner Burges Papers, Archives, University of Texas, Austin; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 4; Lonnie J. White, "Indian Soldiers of the 36th Division," Military History of Texas and the Southwest, XV, No. 1 (1979), 8-9.

11. Daily Oklahoman, April 12, 15, 22, 29, May 13, 15, 24, 26, 27, 28, June 10, 16, 17, 18, July 3, 4, 6, October 17, 1917.

[22]

12. Statesman, June 25, 1917; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 4-5.

13. The articles Chastaine wrote in France were signed. Those written in the United States with one exception were unsigned. Since the articles written from France pick up where those from the United States leave off, the writing style of all the articles is the same, and Chastaine subsequently wrote a book, Story of the 36th: The Experiences of the 36th Division in the World War (Oklahoma City, 1920), based in part on his newspaper articles, the author has concluded that Chastaine was the writer of the unsigned pieces. Thus the reader is alerted that all statements in this book attributed to Chastaine in the Daily Oklahoman from 1917 until the 36th Division left for Europe are based on the supposition that he was the writer of the newspaper stories in question. For a brief account of Chastaine’s preWorld War I career, see the Star-Telegram, September 13, 1917.

14. Daily Oklahoman, July 8, August 15, November 11, 1917; Marquis Who’s Who, Who Was Who in American History—The Military (Chicago, 1975), 262.

15. Star-Telegram, August 27, November 18, 1917; Marquis Who’s Who, Who Was Who in American History—The Military, 275; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 630; Harry L. Krenek, "John Augustus Hulen, Service in the Philippine Insurrection, 1899-1901," Military History of Texas and the Southwest, IX, No. 1 (1971), 34-48; Jimmy M. Skaggs, "Lieutenant General John A. Hulen: Portrait of a Citizen-Soldier," ibid., VIII, No. 3 (1970), 135-143; Robert V. Haynes, A Night of Violence: The Houston Riot of 1917 (Baton Rouge, 1976), 180-186.

16. Star-Telegram, October 28, 1917; Pass In Review (Fort Worth, Texas), January 31, 1918; Statesman, October 15, November 3, 1918; Smith to Pershing, August 29, 1918, Correspondence relating to General Hutchings, GHQ, IG, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives.

17. Star-Telegram, August 22, 1917, February 2, 3, 1918; Daily Oklahoman, October 21, 1917; Pass In Review, April 15, 1918; Donaldson to AG of Army, December 21, 1917, HQ, Decimal File, 36th Division, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives; William E. Jary, Jr. (ed. and art dir.), Camp Bowie, Fort Worth, 1917-1918 (Fort Worth, 1975), 35; Trail Log, May 1, 1919, publication of the 131st Field Artillery Regiment, Frank J. Tillman Collection, Archives, Texas State Library, Austin.

18. Star-Telegram, July 15, 16, 18, 19, 23, August 1, 15, 20, October 9, 1917; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 4.

19. Statesman, June 11, August 4, 1917; Star-Telegram, May 12, 17, June 1, 11, 20, 29, 30, July 1, 9, 12, 16, August 5, 12, September 30, December 16, 1917; Jary (ed.), Camp Bowie, 4-5, 8-9; Coffman, War To End All Wars, 29-30; Benedict Crowell and Robert Forrest Wilson, The Road to France: The Transportation of Troops and Military Supplies, 1917-1918 (2 vols., New Haven, 1921),1, 31-33; Thomas G. Frothingham, The American Reinforcement in the World War (New York, 1927), 111- 118. In military parlance a camp was composed of tent quarters while a cantonment consisted of wooden barracks. John A. Cutchins and George S. Stewart, Jr., History of the Twenty-ninth Division, "Blue and Gray," 1917-1919 (Philadelphia, 1921), 4. The author has not necessarily observed this distinction between "camp" and "cantonment."

20. Coffman, War To End All Wars, 29-3 1; Benedict Crowell and Robert Forrest Wilson, Demobilization: Our Industrial and Military Demobilization After the [23] Armistice, 1918-1920 (New Haven, 1921), 264; Jary (ed.), Camp Bowie, 4-5, 8, 18, 36; Pass In Review, June 15, 1918; Star-Telegram, July 11, 17, 23, 24, 25, 26, August 5, 6, 7, 10, 12,13, 14, 21, September 16, October 5, 21, 28, 31, November 10, 21, 1917, January 3, February 2, March 2, April 10, 29, July 26, September 22, 1918. The Star-Telegram, September 9, 1917, stated that the government expected the construction of Camp Bowie to cost $2,445,750; the newspaper on April 10, 1918, reported the cost as $1,953,000. An item in Jary (ed.), Camp Bowie, 18, gives the expenditure as $2,235,504.65. The amount in the text is from Crowell and Wilson as cited above.

21. Star-Telegram, June 28, August 25, September 17, November 11, 12, 16, 21, 28, 29, 1917, January 13, February 27, April 10, 1918; Jary (ed.), Camp Bowie, 5.

22. Star-Telegram September 18, 25, 30, October 7, December 16, 1917; Leonard Sanders, How Fort Worth Became the Texasmost City (Fort Worth, 1973), 190-191. The author’s statement that Fort Worth enjoyed a boom during World War I is based primarily on his reading of the Star-Telegram, 1917-1919.

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