36th Division in World War I

FOOTNOTES

1Arrow Head, March 6, 2 1, April 4, 11, 18, 25, May 2, 1919; Star-Telegram, February 9,1919; Daily Oklahoman, May 11, 1919; Movement Memorandum, G1, No. 1, April 14, No. 7, April 19, 1919, Headquarters, 36th Division, Historical File, Documents related to entrainment and detrainment of 36th Division, April-May, 1919, HQ, Decimal File, 36th Division, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives; Crowell and Wilson, Demobilization, 1-46, 57; Spence, "History of theThirty-sixth," 360-362, 480-485, 508-509, 610.

2 [226] Star-Telegram, May 20, 22, 24, 30, 31, June 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 1919; Hart, Company K, 146; Barnes, 142nd Infantry, 49-50; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 362.

3Crowell and Wilson, Demobilization, 54; Star-Telegram, June 1, 2, 1919. Both Spence and Chastaine stated that the 142nd debarked at Boston. Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 363; Chastaine, Story of the 36th, 275. The evidence is clear enough, however, that the Graf Waldersee, the Pueblo, and the Saxonia, which carried the regiment, all landed at Hoboken. See Barnes, 142nd Infantry, 51-52: Hart, Company K, 147; Daily Oklahoman, June 1, 1919; Star-Telegram, May 22, 30, June 2, 1919. Spence probably made the error initially and Chastaine, who was no longer with the 36th, repeated it in his book.

4Star-Telegram, November 17, December 4, 27, 1918, January 9, 11, 19, 30, 3 1,February 6, March 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, April 1, 3, 7, 8, May 4, 27, 29, June 2, 3, 8, 1919; Daily Oklahoman, January 9, March 6, May 25, 27, June 8, 1919; Trail Log, May 1, 1919, Tillman Collection, Archives, Texas State Library, Austin; March, The Nation At War, 325-326.

5Star-Telegram, May 22, 30, 3 1, June 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 1919; Daily Oklahoman, June 1, 4, 1919; Barnes, 142nd Infantry, 53; Toy and Poynor, Brief History of the 111th Field Signal Battalion; Crowell and Wilson, Demobilization, 53-57.

6Star-Telegram, August 19, 26, 1918; February 12, 22, 24, March 9, May 13, 14, 27, 31, June 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 1919; Daily Oklahoman, June 8, 11, 12, 13, 18, 1919; pencil notation by Private White, Barnes, 142nd Infantry, 54, copy in possession of author.

7San Antonio Express (Texas), July 1, 1919; Star-Telegram, June 3, 6,10,11, 30, 1919; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 363.

8Star-Telegram, June 22, 1919; March, The Nation At War, 322-323; Barnes, 142nd Infantry, 55.

9Arrow Head, April 25, May 2, 1919; Star-Telegram, November 7, December 4, 1918; Burges to Caldwell, November 3, 1918, Burges Papers, Archives, University of Texas; Hart, Company K, 146-148.

10Harry Krenek, The Power Vested: The Use of Martial Law and the National Guard in Texas Domestic Crisis, 1919-1932 (Austin, 1980), 8, 17-18, 36-37, 42, 45; Jary (ed.), Camp Bowie, 35, 94, 97; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 363; McDugal, A History of the Texas National Guard, 2; Hill, History of the National Guard, 298-304; March, The Nation At War, 323; Arrow Head, April 18, 1919; Star-Telegram, March 23, June 8, 1919. Part of the information on the subject above was made available to the author by Dr. Krenek.

11Star-Telegram, June 4, 5, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 1919; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 363-364; Marquis Who’s Who, Who Was Who in American History—The Military, 634; West Point Alumni Foundation, Inc., Register of Graduates (1970 ed.), 296.

12Eddy, Report on the American Indian Soldier, Historical Section, GHQ, AEF Records, RG 120, National Archives; Star-Telegram, December 1, 1918, May 18, June 1, 5, 11, 1919; Daily Oklahoman, April 13, June 1, 1919; Stars and Stripes, November 8, 1918; White, "Indian Soldiers of the 36th Division," Military History of Texas and the Southwest, XV, 14-19; W. Bruce White, "The American Indian as Soldier, 1890-1919," Canadian Review of American Studies, VII (Spring, 1976), 21-25.

13[227] Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 367, 510-530; Documents related to medals, 1918-1919, Project Files, 1917-1925, 36th Division, Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, RG 407, National Archives; Arrow Head, February 27, March 13, 28, April 25, 1919; Star-Telegram, April 22, May 24, June 5, 12, 13, 1 5, 16, 18, 19, 30, 1919; Daily Oklahoman, June 1, 8, 29, July 13, 1919; Barnes, 142nd Infantry, 56-57, 183-185; Chastaine, Story of the 36th, 277; Palmer, Pershing, 220-221; Thirty-Sixth in the Great War, 10; Medal of Honor of the United States Army, 459-467, 469; Jary (ed.), Camp Bowie, 93, 105. The discussion of medals awarded to members of the 36th is based largely on Captain Spence’s official history. Spence gave the total number of decorations as 469, of which 415 were specified as the Croix de Guerre. Several persons evidently won two Croix de Guerre since their names are given twice on the pertinent lists appended to Spence’s work. Three recipients not included at all, however, were Major Benjamin F. Wright, Hulen, and Smith. Hulen is reported to have been awarded the Croix de Guerre twice. Thus I have added four to Spence’s figures to give 419 French war crosses. Likewise, Spence listed only one winner of the Distinguished Service Medal whereas I know of three. One can only wonder how many other medal winners were not recorded on the lists attached to Spence’s history. In another instance, Spence stated that five officers were decorated, in Smith’s case, as a Commander, and in that of the others, as Chevaliers, with the Legion of Honor while only four names are listed. A newspaper article suggests the fifth officer as Second Lieutenant (formerly Sergeant) Woods. Smith was presented with the Rosette of a Commander of the Legion of Honor at Brest on May 21, 1919.

14Arrow Head, April 25, 1919; Star-Telegram, June 14, 1919; Spence, "History of the Thirty-sixth," 364; Krenek, The Power Vested, 17-18; Barnes, 142nd Infantry, 57. Much to Bloor’s credit, "the commander of the French forces on the left" of the 142nd at St. Etienne "declared that the manner in which the men [of the regiment] held their ground and consolidated their positions following the necessary confusion of the first day of battle was nothing less than marvelous for soldiers in their first fight." Daily Oklahoman, April 6, 1919.

15Arrow Head, February 27, 1919; Statesman, April 13, 1919; Star-Telegram, April 13, June 15, 16, 1919; Hart, Company K, 9; March, The Nation At War, 273; Coffman, War To End All Wars, 383-386. See also note 3 in Chapter Five. The short version of Spence’s "History of the Thirty-sixth" was entitled as cited previously in this book, "The Services of the Thirty-sixth Division with the American Expeditionary Forces, July, 1918, to May, 1919." Spence’s full official history has been of incalculable value in the composition of this study. It has been particularly helpful in filling a number of what might have been small gaps. Also, Spence’s own comments and observations have been useful in providing explanations of several matters not otherwise apparent in the sources. More valuable than the text has been the orders, memorandums, reports, lists, and the like which Spence included as an appendix.

16Arrow Head, April 11, 1919; Barnes, 142nd Infantry. See also note 13 in Chapter One. Chastaine’s articles have been mined extensively in the preparation of this study. The citations to Chastaine’s book are intended largely for easy reference to subjects usually covered at greater length in his articles and/or to let the reader know that I am aware of his account of the same matter as discussed in the text.

17[228] Star-Telegram, June 22, 1919; Express, July 1, 1919.

18Marquis Who’s Who, Who Was Who in American History—The Military, 54 1; West Point Alumni Foundation, Inc., Register of Graduates (1970 ed.), 293; White, "Major General William R. Smith and the 36th Division in France," Military History of Texas and the Southwest, XVI, 172-173.

19Robert L. Wagner, The Texas Army: A History of the 36th Division in the Italian Campaign (Austin, 1972), 4, 234; Fred A. Daugherty and Pendleton Woods, "Oklahoma’s Military Tradition," Chronicles of Oklahoma, LVII (Winter, 1979-1980), 427-445. The Oklahoma National Guard became part of the 45th Division in 1923.

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Panthers to Arrowheads: The 36th (Texas-Oklahoma) Division In World War I
by Lonnie J. White
Copyright 1984 1998 by Military History Associates, Inc.
All Rights Reserved - Reprinted by Permission
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